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14 Confinement of positive ions and electrons with a static electromagnetic field
Injecting electrons sidewards after which they move in circles, perhaps creating a kind of virtual electrode
Let´s inject the electrons horizontally (in z=0,5 m) Consider an electron moving in a magnetic field. F = m.v^{2} / r > B.q.v
= m.v^{2} / r The electrons can be produced in an electron gun They are accelerated by a voltage difference ΔV > q.ΔV = ½.m.v^{2} v = √(q. ΔV . 2. / m) = 5,930 . 10^{5} . √(ΔV) m/s
Let´s take ve = 1,0.10^{6} m/s and r = 0,24 m > B = m.v / ( r . q) = 9.10 ×10^{−31} . (1,0.10^{6) }/ (0,24 . 1.6021×10^{−19} ) = 2,37 10 ^{5} T = 0,24 gauss
Fig. 1
 Fig. 2 exp. 14.1
B = 0,24 gauss Remark: the speeds/velocities of the
generated electrons are not exactly the same (see the code above >
Random function). Fig. 3 exp. 14.2
All the same as in exp. 14.1, except
the magnetic field B is twice as strong. As a result, the radius of the
orbit of the
Fig. 4a exp. 14.3
If a negative voltage is applied to
the blue rings, for example, 50 kV, then the electrons fly away
sidewards, due to the
Fig. 4b exp. 14.3
The direction of the electric field is
indicated, and two points (x,y,z),
Fig. 5 exp. 14.4
A vertical magnetic field of 50 gauss; the blue rings are charged with 50 kV. The behaviour of the electrons is quite curious: they move in a big circle (not necessarily an exact circle) with a radius of about 0,20 m, but also in small circles. The radius of the small circles (not necessarily exact circles) can hardly be seen. But the program has the possibiliy to magnify, and then it can be seen. I suppose that the radius of the small circles is (about): r = = m.v / ( B.q ) = 9.10 ×10^{−31} . (1,0.10^{6) }/ (50.10^{4} . 1.6021×10^{−19} ) = 1,14 .10^{3} m But why they move in the big circle?
Fig. 6 exp. 14.5
The big circle of the orbiting electrons is a tiny little bit smaller now. They still seem to move also in small circles.
Fig. 7 exp. 14.6
The voltage of the blue rings is a bit
smaller:  5 kV.
Exp. 14.6 All the same, only the voltage of the
blue rings is now 1 kV.
Fig. 7.b. Exp. 14.8
All the same, only the voltage of the blue rings is now 0 kV. The electrons stay in the point where
they are generated, it looks like they move Fig. 8.
Recording of various experiments in youtube
Remark: in exp. 14.9 till 14.14 dt=1E9 is used, but for the electrons it is better to use dt=1E10, because if the integration time dt is too large, it seems to be that the simulation program is "too slow" to calculate the fast moving light electrons. Fig. 8. Exp. 14.9
All the same, the voltage of the blue rings is 0.2 kV.  => It seems to be that the more negative
the voltage of the blue rings. the faster the
electrones move Why? This seems to be some curious interaction between the static electric field and the static magnetic field.. Let´s continue with different configurations.  Fig. 9. Exp. 14.10 (dt = 1E9 s, but should be dt=1E10 s)
Fig. 10. Exp. 14.11 (dt = 1E9 s, but should be dt=1E10 s)
The D+ ions do not stay well confined because the magnetic field strenght is only 300 gauss (0,03 T) The electrons do circle/move in the big circle.
Fig. 11. Exp. 14.12
Under in the picture the swarm of
electrons at three different times. They behave almost like a "swarm of
starlings". (estorninos, spreeuwen, protters) Video exp. 14.12 (at the right a 5x magnification ) Now the D+ ions stay better confined in this stronger magnetic field of 1 tesla. I think it should be easier to inject the electrons from the side of the vacuum chamber, than vertically just above the bottom blue ring. But because of bremsstrahlung the
electrons will loose quite quickly their energy, and so their speed.
Fig. 12. Exp. 14.13 (dt = 1E9 s, but should be dt=1E10 s)
if
DecreaseSpeedElectrons=true then The speeds of the electrons descreases
in time and they move then more to the outside. I saw one escaping. After 0,00018 s almost all electons escaped. And when their speed is small, they are not longer well confined by the magnetic field, It is a pitty that that they do not move to the centre, forming a kind of virtual electrode there :( I did the experiment with dt=1E10 s, decreasing the speed of the electrons, and they did also escape. Fig. 13.
Here the direction of the electric
field is shown, for the configuration of exp. 14.13 In the centre
xy plane, the electric field is pointing towards the centre, so an
electron will feel a electric force pointing outwards.
Fig. 14. Exp. 14.14 (dt = 1E9 s, but should be dt=1E10 s)
The electrons are injected in the same
point (0,5, 0,7, 0,5 ), as in the former experiments. They have now also an initial speed vz upwards,
but after being generated they start to move up an down (they do not
escape vertically). Fig. 15. (xy centre plane)
Fe is the electric force exerted on
the electron, pointing towards the positive ring. The interaction of these two forces
should give as result the strange movement of the electrons as seen
Fig. 16. Exp. 14.14 (dt = 1E9 s, but should be dt=1E10 s)
The movement of the swarm of electrons
is as shown above (a kind of caotic, vibrating movement, following more
or less When the speed of the electrons is decreased in the program (like Brehmsstrahlung), they escape all, after some time.
Fig. 17. Exp. 14.15
The same experiment as 14.13, only the
integration time dt = 10^{10} s (instead of 10^{9} s) The speed of the electrons is reduced: The arrows show the direction of the magnetic field (is constant). When the speed of the electrons is not reduced, they move more or less in the same way (also in this big circle), with mean e = 0,1959 (changing in time a bit). Now with dt = 10^{10} s we do not see the "swarm of starlings movement", as seen before, but they move still in the big circle. The speed with which the electrons move in the big circle depends of the negative potential of the rings: the higher the absolute value of this negative potential, the faster they move in the big circle.
Fig. 18. Exp. 14.16 Injecting D+
ions horizontally without charged rings De deuterium ions D+ are injected
horizontally: The D+ move in circles with r =
m.v/(B.q) = 2.1,67E27 . 1E5 /(1 . 1,6E19) = 0,21 cm
Fig. 19. Exp. 14.17 Injecting D+ ions horizontally with charged rings at +100 kV
The same as exp. 14.16, only the two
rings are now charged at +100 kV. With dt=10^{10} s they move
also in the same big circle. Fig. 19 Exp. 14.17 screenshot .png
Also quite curious, it does not matter
if you inject the D+ ions clockwise or counter clockwise, the
always start moving clockwise in the big circle: (actually we did
inject the particles at the right and the left, If
InjectDhorizontally=true then  Deflection of charged particles in a magnetic field in youtube  Conclusion: This is quite a curious phenomenon, but I don´t know, for the moment, how to use this to improve the Sem Fusor design. I also don´t know if I´ve made a new discovery, or if this is already known in the scientific world.  Via
https://www.scienceforums.net/topic/128901curiousbehaviorofelectronsinastaticelectromagneticfield/
https://groups.nscl.msu.edu/lebit/lebitfacility/penningtraps/index.html


October
2020  February 2023
by
Rinze
Joustra www.valgetal.com

