8 Breaking the Coulomb barrier by electrostatic acceleration of ions in a device generating a very high voltage and with a floating inner grid Just some idea's...  (will not produce net energy)

(8e idea)

Let's us consider the following:

Fig. 1. Schematic representation of an outer sphere and a floating inner sphere. (outer dimensions about 1 mtr diameter) The outer sphere is made of a conducting metal, strong enough to withhold a vacuum inside. The inside of the outer sphere is pumped vacuum.

The inner sphere is hollow and is made of a conducting and magnetic boron compound (or only the outside surface of it is made of boron and the inside consists of a conducting and magnetic metal). Some electromagnets are placed outside the outer sphere. The position of the inner sphere is monitored by sensors. With help of these sensors the electromagnets keep the inner sphere floating in the centre. Under and above there is a hole in the inner sphere. Along a diameter of the inner sphere there are two thin conducting bars.

For an example of keeping an object floating by means of an electromagnet: my.execpc.com/~rhoadley/magsusp.htm

Our goal is to charge the inner sphere with a very high voltage: for example - 100 MV.

Perhaps we can do that in the following way:

Under we have a device where we charge a small bullet with a negative charge. After that it is "fired" by means of, for example, an electromagnet. It travels then with a rather high speed towards the opposite side of the outer sphere. On its way it will enter the inner sphere through the hole in the bottom, and in the centre of the inner sphere it will touch the two metal bars. Because inside a hollow conducting sphere there cannot exists any electric field, the negative charges of the bullet will repel each other and flow through the two metal bars to the outer surface of the inner sphere (similar as in a Van der Graaff generator). The discharged bullet will then continue its way through the hole in the top of the inner sphere and towards the device at the top of the outer sphere. Here it is charged again with a negative charge and after that fired again, but now downwards. And the same process as before happens again.

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Let's now suppose that we have managed to charge the inner sphere negatively with a very high voltage: for example -100 MV.

Because there is a vacuum inside the outer sphere, the inner sphere is perfectly isolated: there cannot take place any discharge... or it can..?   Electrons can escape from a heated cathode for example. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_electron_emission  Is it possible to accumulate so many electrons on the surface of the inner sphere to reach such a high voltage difference?

Let's suppose (hope) that this is possible.

Now we let in some hydrogen. Because of the very strong electric field it will be ionized. The positive hydrogen ions will be accelerated towards the negatively charged inner sphere.

With a voltage of - 100 MV, the ions will obtain an energy of 100 MeV.

Could it be possible perhaps that this would cause a fusion reaction when the hydrogen ion collide with the boron material of the inner sphere?

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Let's consider the boron-hydrogen fusion reaction:

115B + 11H  -> 3 42He  + 8,68 MeV   (see en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aneutronic_fusion)

No noxious neutrons are produced and the 3 positive  42He+ particles will move with high speed out of the centre increasing the voltage. (They could perhaps even be used to generate directly electricity.)

The strong nuclear force works until ± 2 fm = 2.10 -15 m  (see: wiki/Nuclear_force )

Z B  = 5  (amount of positive protons in a boron ion)

Z 1    = 1  (only one positive proton in a hydrogen ion)
k is the Coulomb's constant = 9,0×109 N m² C−2
1 eV = 1,6 . 10
-19  J
= >
Ucoul =  k . Z B . Z 1 . e 2  / r  =  9.0 . 10 9 . 5 . 1 . (1,6.10
-19 ) 2  / (2.10 -15)  = 0,6.10 -12  Nm =    0,6 .10 -12   J  =  3,6. MeV

(see: wiki/Coulomb_barrier )

So to break the coulomb barrier between a boron nucleus and hydrogen nucleus about 4  MeV energy is needed (note: according this very simple calculation).  If a hydrogen ion is accelerated from about the outer sphere to the surface of the inner sphere and achieves a kinetic energy of 100 MeV, this should be more than enough to cause a nuclear fusion reaction.  (If it would collide with a right angle with a boron nucleus...)

The nuclear fusion reactions will generate heat, which could be used to warm up water outside the outer sphere.

The inlet of hydrogen can be controlled, so the generating of heat as well.

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Questions/doubts:

Maybe not all collisions of hydrogen ions on the surface of the inner sphere will cause a fusion reaction. So what will be the efficiency?

The more negative the potential of the inner sphere, the greater will be the opposing force exerted on the negatively charged bullet when it approaches the inner sphere. This could be a problem; calculations are needed.

The electromagnets that keep the inner sphere in the centre, could also affect the trajectory of the bullet.

The device to charge, fire and receive the bullet.. how will this be?

Which negative voltage we could reach? - 100 MV?  In  wikipedia.org/wiki/Field_electron_emission  it is stated that field emission in pure metals occurs in high electric fields: the gradients are typically higher than 1 gigavolt / meter = 1000 MV/m. But, if nuclear fusion reactions occur, the inner sphere will be heated and the inner sphere will act as a hot cathode and will probably emit electrons and loose its negative charge (see also: wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermionic_emission ) This would be quite a disadvantage...

Instead of using electromagnets we could also connect the inner sphere to the outer sphere by means of a bar made of very good electric insulating material. This would be a lot easier. But which negative voltage we could reach? In internet I found that in air electrical discharge will occur with 3000 V/mm = 3 MV/m.  In the material mica discharge will occur with 20 to 60 kV/mm = 20 to 60 MV/m ( circuitsonline.net/forum/view/message/553363) In physics.info/dielectrics/  I read that for Mica dielectric breakdown takes place with 160 MV/m. Perhaps we could use Mica? Further study is needed. 17 February 2014      by  Rinze Joustra        www.valgetal.com